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2!Sicilia!:Taormina, Siracusa, Catania, Agrigento & Trapani

Irapuato
12
irapuato 8 de julio 2011, Segunda parte de nuestra visita a Sicilia. Visitamos: Taormina, Siracusa, Catania, Agrigento y Trápani.
Abramo
Fantastico!

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Irapuato
 !GRACIAS, AMIGAS! Collage de Sicilia: Collage: Sicilia/Sicily 13-20 June/junio 2011
Josefina Rojo
todavía no lo termino de ver, pero desde la otra vez te quería decir que me encanta tu hija que posa para las fotos, está muy bonita. felicidades. ... lo seguiré viendo... gracias por todos estos paseos a los que nos invitas
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MsPandevida
QUE DELICIA DE VIDEO !! EL SANTUARIO DE NUESTRA SEñORA DE LAS LAGRIMAS !!♥♥♥♥♥♥ it
ESTRAN TU HIJITA U TU ! He ???
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Irapuato
pt. 1 SICILIA!: Palermo, Monreale, Monte Pellegrino: 1Sicilia!: Palermo, Monreale & Monte Pellegrino
Irapuato
The Valle dei Templi (English: Valley of the Temples, Sicilian: Vaddi di li Tempri) is an archaeological site in Agrigento (ancient Greek Akragas), Sicily, southern Italy. It is one of the most outstanding examples of Greater Greece art and architecture, and is one of the main attractions of Sicily as well as a national monument of Italy. The area was included in the UNESCO Heritage …More
The Valle dei Templi (English: Valley of the Temples, Sicilian: Vaddi di li Tempri) is an archaeological site in Agrigento (ancient Greek Akragas), Sicily, southern Italy. It is one of the most outstanding examples of Greater Greece art and architecture, and is one of the main attractions of Sicily as well as a national monument of Italy. The area was included in the UNESCO Heritage Site list in 1997. Much of the excavation and restoration of the temples was due to the efforts of archaeologist Domenico Antonio Lo Faso Pietrasanta (1783-1863), who was the Duke of Serradifalco from 1809 through 1812.
The term "valley" is a misnomer, the site being located on a ridge outside the town of Agrigento.
The Valley includes remains of seven temples, all in Doric style. The identification of the names, apart that of the Olympeion, are a mere tradition established in the Renaissance times. The temples are:
Temple of Juno, built in the 5th century BC and burnt in 406 BC by the Carthaginians. It was usually used for the celebration of weddings.
Temple of Concordia, whose names stems from a Latin inscription found nearby, and which was also built in the 5th century BC. Turned into a church in the 6th century AD, it is now one of the best preserved in the Valley.
Temple of Heracles, who was one of the most venerated deities in the ancient Akragas. It is the most ancient in the Valley: destroyed by an earthquake, it consists today of only eight columns.
Temple of Zeus Olympic, built in 480 BC to celebrate the city-state's victory over Carthage. It is characterized by the use of large size atlases.
Temple of Castor and Pollux. Despite that its remains include only four columns, it is now the symbol of modern Agrigento.
Temple of Vulcan, also dating from the 5th century BC. It is thought to have been one of the most imposing constructions in the valley; it is now however one of the most damaged by the years and natural phenomena.
Temple of Asclepius, located far from the ancient town's walls; it was the goal of pilgrimage for people seeking to heal from illness.
The Valley is also home to the so called Tomb of Theron, a large tuff monument of pyramidal shape; scholars suppose it was built to celebrate the Roman victims in the Second Punic War.

Temple of Juno.
Temple of Juno Lacinia
This temple was constructed on a mostly artificial spur. It dates to c. 450 BC, measuring 38.15 x 16.90 m: it is in Doric style, peripteros with 6 x 13 columns, preceded by a pronaos and opisthodomos. The basement has four steps.
Current remains (including anastylosis from the 18th century onwards) the front columnade with parts of the architrave and of the frieze (only fragments of the other three sides are present), with few elements of the cella. The building was damaged in the fire of 406 BC and restored in Roman times, with the substitution of the roof tiles with marble ones and the addition of a steep rise in the are where today can be seen the remains of the altar.
Nearby are arcosolia and other sepultures from Byzantine times, belonging to the late 6th century AD renovation of the Temple of Concordia into a Christian church.
Temple of Concordia

Plan of the temple of Concordia.
Due to its good state of preservation, the Temple of Concordia is ranked amongst the most notable edifices of the Greek civilization existing today. It has a peristatis of 6 x 13 columns built over a basement of 39.44 x 16.91 m; each Doric column has twenty grooves and a slight entasis, and is surmounted by an architratave with triglyphs and metopes; also perfectly preserved are the tympani. The cella, preceded by a pronaos, is accessed by a single step; also existing are the pylons with the stairs which allowed to reach the roof and, over the cella's walls and in the blocks of the peristasis' entablature, the holes for the wooden beam of the ceiling. The exterior and the interior of the temples were covered by polychrome stucco. The upper frame had gutters with lion-like protomes, while the roof was covered by marble tiles.
When the temple was turned into a church the entrance was moved to the rear, and the rear wall of the cella had to be destroyed. The spaces between the columns were closed, while 12 arched openings were created in the cella, in order to obtain a structure with one nave and two aisles. The pagan altar was destroyed and sacristies were carved out in the eastern corners. The sepultures visible inside and outside the temple date to the High Middle Age.
Temple of Asclepius
The temple of Asclepius is located in the middle of the San Gregorio plain. Its identification is based on a mention by Polybius (I, 18, 2), who states that the temple was "in front of the city", one mile away. However, as the actual distance does not correspond and the size of the building is relatively small, scholars remains dubious about this attribution.
The small temple, probably dating to the late 5th century BC and measuring 21.7 x 10.7 m, rises over a basament with three steps. Its peculiarity is the fake opysthodomus with two semi-columns in the external side of the rear cella. Also known are parts of the entablature, with lion-like protomes, a frieze and a geison pediment.
The sanctuary housed a bronze statue of Apollo by Myron, a gift to the city by Scipio, which was stolen by Verres[1].

Remains of the Temple of Heracles.
Temple of Heracles
The traditional name of this temple comes from another mention by Cicero[2] about a temple dedicated to the classical hero "not far from the forum"; however, it has never been proven the latter (the agora of the Greek city) was located in this point.
Stylistically, the temple belongs to the last years of the 6th century BC. It has been also suggested that this temple was one of first built under Theron. Also the entablature, of which parts have been found, would date it to the 470-460s or the middle 5th century BC (though the more recent remains could be a replacement of the older ones). One hypothesis is that the temple was begun before the Battle of Himera, to be completed only in the following decades. Polyaenus mentions a temple of Athena being built under Theron outside the city, which could be identified with that of "Hercules", though also with a new one in the inner acropolis.
The building, with 20th century anastylosis, measures 67 x 25.34 m, with a peristais of 6 x 15 Doric columns and a cella with pronaos and opysthodomus, is located over a three-step basement. It is the first example (later become common in the Agrigento temples) of pylons inserted between the pranos and cella, housing the stair which allowed inspections of the roof. The columns are rather high and have wide capitals. On the eastern side are remains of the large altar.

Remains of one atlas in the Olympeion field.
Olympeion field
Main article: Temple of the Olympian Zeus, Agrigento
On the other side of the road running through the Golden Gate of the ancient city, is a plain commanded by the huge Olympeion field. This include a platea with a large temple of Olympian Zeus, plus other areas whose nature is still under investigation from scholars. These include also a sanctuary, including remains of a paved square, a complex sacellum ("holy enclosure") and a tholos. This, after another gate, is followed by a sanctuary of chtonic deities, an archaic sanctuary, the so called colimbetra (where was a still unknown gate) and the tip of the spur where the sanctuary is located, with the temple of Vulcan.
The Olympeion complex's main attraction is the huge temple of Olympian Zeus, which was described with enthusiastic words by Diodorus Siculus and mentioned by Polybius[3]. Today is reduced in ruins due to destructions begun in the very antiquity and continued through the 18th century, when the temple was used as a stone quarry for the port of Porto Empedocle.
Near the south-western corner of the temples is a small edifice (12,45 x 5,90 m) with two naves and a deep pronaos, a double entrance and what has been identified as an altar. Its dating is controversial, though scholars have assigned to the archaic age due to discover of numerous 6th century BC vases. Also archaic is another sacellum, which later was replaced by a classical edifice. These are followed by the scanty remains of a temple (called "Tempio L") dating to the mid-5th century BC, measuring 41.8 x 20.20 meters, to which, in the 3rd century BC, a Hellenistic entablature was added.

The re-assembled remains of the Temples of "Castor and Pollux".
Temple of the Dioscuri
North to the Tempio L are the corner of "Temple of Castor and Pollux", which is in a fact a modern reconstruction from the early 19th century, created using pieces from various other temples. It includes four columns and an entablature mounted over the foundings of an originary temple 31 x 13.39 m, and which would have been a Doric perypteros with 6 x 13 columns, and which dated to about the mid-5th century BC.
Temple of Vulcan
On the other side of the valley is the last spur of the hill, commanded by the remains of the Temple of Vulcan. It is a Doric-style building from the 5th century BC, with an archaic sacellumm enclosed into a Classic-era cella. The sacellum measures 13.25 x 6.50 meters; its decoration, dating to c. 560-550 BC, has been recently reconstructed. The classic temple, a Doric perypteros, measured 43 x 20.85 meters, rising mounted on a four-step krepidoma and having 6 x 13 columns; it dates to around 430 BC.
Other remains
On the western side of the city are the remains of the Gates VI and VII, the first probably lying on the road to Heracles, the second having two towers and two external bastions (one having 15-meters thick walls); more northwards are the remains of the Gates VIII and IX, now surrounded by illegal buildings.
At the western tip of the area in which the Temple of Concordia is, are parts of late ancient-early medieval necropolis, which took advantage of pre-existing cisterns. Other tombs and catacombs are visible in the so-called Grotte Fragapane, dating to the 4th century AD.
These late-Roman and Byzantines necropolises lies in a larger area used for tombs since ancient times. One of these, the so called Tomb of Theron, is a naiskos sepulchre with square plan. Another gate (IV) is located nearby the tomb of Theron: it should be one of the most important in the city, as it connected it to the sea.
West to the Olympeion, are remains of two insulae (residences) 38 m wide, connected by a square to the ancient Gate V. It is likely that they were built re-using structures belonging to the sacred area of the Olympeion. Nearby is a sanctuary with an L-shaped portico from the early 5th century BC, which is annexed to the Gate V. In the area are also two archaic (mid-6th century BC) temples.
On the northern side of Gate V is a large stone square leading to the "Sanctuary of the Chtonic Gods".
The so-called "Oratory of Phalaris" is in fact a Roman temple, measuring 12.40 x 8.85 m.
References
^ Cicero, Verrinae, II 4, 93.
^ Cicero, Verrinae, II 4,94
^ IX 27,9.
See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Archaeological Area of Agrigento
The Valley of the Temples. A visitor's guide to the Valley of the Temples
Architecture of Ancient Greece
Greek temple
List of Greco-Roman roofs
Valley of the Temples - photo gallery
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Valle_dei_Templi
6 more comments from Irapuato
Irapuato
San Pancrazio di Taormina Vescovo e martire
8 luglio
I secolo d.C.
Nacque ad Antiochia, in Cilicia. Narra un'antica tradizione che Pancrazio era appena adolescente quando suo padre infiammato dal desiderio di vedere Gesù, decise di recarsi a Gerusalemme, portando con sé il figlio. Pancrazio ebbe così la straordinaria occasione di vederlo con i suoi occhi. Fatto ritorno ad Antiochia, ebbe poi …More
San Pancrazio di Taormina Vescovo e martire
8 luglio
I secolo d.C.
Nacque ad Antiochia, in Cilicia. Narra un'antica tradizione che Pancrazio era appena adolescente quando suo padre infiammato dal desiderio di vedere Gesù, decise di recarsi a Gerusalemme, portando con sé il figlio. Pancrazio ebbe così la straordinaria occasione di vederlo con i suoi occhi. Fatto ritorno ad Antiochia, ebbe poi modo di udire la predicazione di San Pietro, dal quale venne battezzato, avviato al sacerdozio ed infine consacrato vescovo. Nell'anno 40 d.C. Pancrazio fu inviato da San Pietro in Sicilia quale primo vescovo di Taormina. Nella città sicula riuscì a convertire parecchi pagani, tra i quali lo stesso prefetto. I suoi nemici lo invitarono a un banchetto e tentarono di costringerlo a baciare un idolo di legno, oggetto che il vescovo con un segno di croce ridusse in frantumi. Ciò gli costò dunque la vita. Nel XV secolo i taorminesi introdussero il suo culto anche a Canicattì, che ancora oggi lo venera quale patrono. (Avvenire)
Patronato: Taormina, Canicattì

Etimologia: Pancrazio = lottatore, dal tipo di sport greco

Martirologio Romano: A Taormina in Sicilia, san Pancrazio, vescovo e martire, ritenuto primo vescovo di questa Chiesa.

Occorre innanzitutto specificare che il San Pancrazio oggi festeggiato non è assolutamente da confondere con l’omonimo fanciullo del 12 maggio. L’unico fattore che ad onor del vero li accomuna, oltre al martirio, è la forte carenza di notizie certe, storicamente attendibili, sulla loro esistenza.
Il santo odierno nacque ad Antiochia, in Cilicia, regione in cui risuonava forte dalla Palestina l’eco dei fatti prodigiosi narrati circa la vita di Gesù Cristo. Narra un’antca tradizione che San Pancrazio era appena adolescente, quando suo padre, attratto dalla fama dei miracoli e infiammato dal desiderio di vedere Gesù, decise di recarsi a Gerusalemme, portando con sé il figlio. Pancrazio ebbe così la straordinaria occasione di vederlo con i suoi occhi. Fatto ritorno ad Antiochia, ebbe poi modo “post Christi in caelum Ascensum”, cioè dopo l’ascensione di Gesù al cielo, come si legge nella “Vitae Sanctorum Siculorum”, di udire la predicazione di San Pietro. E proprio dall’apostolo venne battezzato, avviato al sacerdozio ed infine consacrato vescovo.
Nell’anno 40 d.C., nel tempo in cui era imperatore Caligola, San Pancrazio fu inviato da San Pietro in Sicilia quale primo vescovo di Taormina. Nella città sicula il protovescovo riuscì a convertire parecchi pagani, tra i quali lo stesso prefetto ed i suoi nemici si mobilitarono allora contro di lui per ucciderlo. Promotore dell’assassinio fu un pagano di nome Artagato, definito infatti “adoratore degli dei”. Egli, con un gruppo di amici, organizzo l’agguato: invitò San Pancrazio a casa sua per un banchetto e tentò di costringerlo a baciare un idolo di legno, oggetto che il vescovo con un segno di croce ridusse in frantumi. Ciò gli costò dunque la vita e venne immediatamente aggredito con bastoni, pugni, morsi, pietre e spade. Il suo cadavere fu infine occultato in un profondo pozzo, ma scoperto poi dai suoi discepoli ricevette finalmente degna sepoltura. La tradizione vuole che tale rinvenimento avvenne tramite un segno di luc: “Divinae lucis indicio repertum deinde corpus discipuli maximo cum luctu sepelivere». Quanto all’età di San Pancrazio si dice invece: “Vixit egregius Pastor ad summam senectutem, et Traiani principatus initia attigit”, cioè arrivò a tarda vecchiaia e visse sino agli inizi del regno di Traiano. Essendo questi asceso al trono romano nel 98 d.C., si presume che l’età di San Pancrazio al momento del martirio dovesse oscillare intorno ai novant’anni circa.
Quando la Sicilia passò sotto il dominio bizantino si intensificò ulteriormente nell’isola il culto di quei santi di origine orientale, fra cui appunto quello di San Pancrazio. Nel XV secoli i taorminesi introdussero il suo culto anche a Canicattì, che ancora oggi lo venera quale patrono.
Il cardinale Baronio nel compilare il martirologio romano iscrisse San Pancrazio di Taormina al 3 aprile, nonostante tutti i calendari orientali lo avessero da sempre commemorato al 9 luglio, ritenuto l’anniversario della morte. Il nuovo Martyrologium della Chiesa Cattolica, approvato all’alba del Terzo Millennio da papa Giovanni Paolo II, ha però tenuto conto dell’opzione orientale citando il santo all’8 luglio.

Autore: Fabio Arduino
www.santiebeati.it/dettaglio/92656
Irapuato
"Il miracolo della Madonna delle Lacrime": Il miracolo delle lacrime della Madonna prima parte
Irapuato
15 y 16 de junio Estuvimos en Taormina, un lugar muy popular:
Está casi en el límite de la provincia de Catania, se extiende por el monte Tauro, a 200 m de altitud, y se halla en un balcón sobre el mar, enfrente del volcán Etna. Es un centro turístico muy importante desde el siglo XIX.
Posee magníficas playas (accesibles mediante teleférico) y un patrimonio histórico muy rico, cuyo máximo …More
15 y 16 de junio Estuvimos en Taormina, un lugar muy popular:
Está casi en el límite de la provincia de Catania, se extiende por el monte Tauro, a 200 m de altitud, y se halla en un balcón sobre el mar, enfrente del volcán Etna. Es un centro turístico muy importante desde el siglo XIX.
Posee magníficas playas (accesibles mediante teleférico) y un patrimonio histórico muy rico, cuyo máximo exponente es el célebre teatro greco-romano. Además, se conserva un castillo árabe, que ocupa el lugar de la antigua ciudadela o Arx.
es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taormina
17 de junio Siracusa y Catania...Primero visitamos el Santuario de N. Sra. de las Lágrimas en Siracusa, y luego volvimos a Catania. En Catania veneramos a Santa Ágata, en la Catedral: (italiano)
it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cattedrale_di_Sant%27Agata
18 de junio Agrigento: El Valle de los Templos (en italiano Valle dei Templi) es un conjunto arqueológico situado cerca de Agrigento, en el sur de Sicilia.
Agrigento (Akragas en griego) se comenzó a construir a partir del año 580 a. C. en el territorio que se conoce como la Magna Grecia; todos los templos del valle fueron construidos con posterioridad a esta fecha. La «zona arqueológica de Agrigento» está considerada Patrimonio de la Humanidad por la Unesco desde 1998 y es uno de los principales destinos turísticos de la isla; comprende el parque arqueológico del Valle de los Templos y otros vestigios situados sobre la acrópolis y en diversos lugares de la ciudad.
El término Valle de los Templos es equívoco, dado que más que un valle, las construcciones se asientan en una crestería en las montañas que rodeaban la ciudad por el sur.
Comprende una amplia zona sagrada en la parte sur de la antigua ciudad donde se construyeron, durante los siglos VI y V a. C., siete templos griegos monumentales hexástilos en estilo dórico. Actualmente excavados y en parte restaurados, constituyen parte de los edificios griegos más antiguos y mejor conservados fuera de la propia Grecia. Sus denominaciones y respectivas identificaciones, excepto la del Olimpieon o Templo de Zeus Olímpico, se cree que son meras especulaciones humanísticas, aunque siguen siendo utilizadas habitualmente.
Los templos mejor conservados son dos edificios muy parecidos, atribuidos tradicionalmente a las diosas Juno Lacinia y Concordia (aunque los arqueólogos creen que esta atribución es incorrecta). Ambos fueron construidos según un diseño períptero hexástilo.
es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Valle_de_los_Templos
19 y 20 de junio Trapani (Tràpani en siciliano) es capital de la provincia de Trapani, de Sicilia (Italia) con 70.531 habitantes (2009). Famosa por sus salinas y sus molinos de sal, y por los restos arqueológicos fenicios encontrados en el islote de Mothya (hoy San Pantaleón), situado frente a dichas salinas.
es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trapani
Irapuato
 !Hola, amigos! Aquí está la segunda parte de nuestra visita a Sicilia, del 13 a 20 de junio, 2011.
Irapuato
Sorry that the description of the Valley of the Temples went by so fast--tomorrow I'll post the information...
Irapuato
This is the second part of our trip to Sicily, June 13-20, 2011.